On Saturday, July 11 of this year, Joaquin Guzman escaped from the high-security prison in Puente Grande, Jalisco, after spending 17 months behind bars for the crime of money laundering . He is currently the most wanted man in the world because the Interpol issued a red circular to the 190 member countries to find his capture.
A man of 60 years, the largest capo in the world, who is known to have started growing marijuana in his native Sinaloa, Mexico since his adolescence . For the decade of the 80 it was already one of the visible heads of that delinquent organization of the same name.
“At that time the Colombian cartels were taking drugs through the Caribbean and the Pacific. There they began the role of the alliances with Mexico, they were in charge of the transport and then they began to charge for each shipment. In the 90s, when the authorities defeated the Colombians, the Mexicans gained strength. ”
This is how the drug trafficking boom Mabel González, the Madrilenian journalist author of the book ‘Drug trafficking and organized crime, describes alternatives.’ and current researcher at the Global South Unit for Mediation (GSUM) in Brazil.
González knew the Colombian reality at least 10 years ago when he began working with Doctors Without Borders on issues of forced displacement in the national territory. By then, she had specialized in conflicts and her interest in economies in contexts of illegality and violence led her to study drug trafficking. A month after the escape of the biggest boss in the world, the journalist spoke with El Espectador and explained how is currently the crime that has left more than 100,000 dead in less than a decade in Mexico.
According to the author, at present in that country, there is a fragmentation of the seven largest drug cartels . The one that has more power has a vertical structure and that of Sinaloa. “The cartel has a presence in Peru, Bolivia and Colombia. For example, in the operations they have captured their members in West Africa, because the drug goes out along the coasts of Brazil, “he says. And that is one of the reasons why he catalogs it as the most important poster of the moment.
His research allows him to maintain that the Sinaloa cartel controls the production chain, since they manage from existing crops in Colombia or Peru, to distribution in the United States. “They are a federation composed of several chiefs who coordinate the processing, then they are distributed in the country and they function as a network. El Chapo is one of them. ”
Production that according to the author is in Peru, Bolivia and Colombia, countries that in the last 20 years have managed to supply the global market due to its strategic position in the Andean area. The role of Mexican cartels has gained currency in recent decades. “In the eighties and nineties when the big Colombian cartels were handling the world market, the Mexican groups were small, they were dedicated to marijuana and opium.
Cocaine was transported from Colombia to the United States, “he says, and that adds that drug trafficking adapts easily because it is a product of much consumption around the world. For example, in Malaysia and China, they buy methamphetamines and chemical precursors for the manufacture of drugs using quadcopter across the world.
According to González, cartels now have an amazing capacity for innovation, both in their own structural forms, as well as in the routes and means of transport, and in the way they adopt and take advantage of all kinds of technological improvements in transport and communications.
For example, they now arrive in the United States through drones, information that was already disseminated by the DEA (Agency of the United States of America) , which maintains that narcodrons have been used since 2011 to traffic on Mexico’s border with that country.